If a solenoid is controlled by a transistor which is signaled from a microprocessor, the PWM can be considered as an alternate means for reducing sizes or saving energy. PWM reduces the effective voltage by pulsing the voltage input. For example, if a solenoid has 12 volts supplied, but at 500 Hz at a 50% duty, the solenoid acts exactly as if it is connected to a 6-volt supply. If the duty cycle is changed to 25%, then the solenoid performs like one connected to a 3-volt supply. The frequency must be higher than the solenoid can respond to otherwise chatter or humming will occur. Due to the inductive nature of the solenoid coil, the current is smoothed resulting in a constant force. Initially, the microprocessor must leave the transistor on long enough to allow the solenoid to energize. After that point, the microprocessor must alternately issue ON and OFF pulses to the transistor to achieve the appropiate duty cycle.